Social contructivism (Vygotsky): Children are naturally inclined to want to learn, a positive atmosphere and praise promotes learning and mistakes are ok-they are a part of the learning process, social interaction helps learning, insight gained by listening to others and verbalizing our own thoughts, give tools to learn with that are fun and engaging, challenge at a level that is not overwhelming, celebrate learning that has occurred, language or a story is used to tap existing schema to make learning and assimilation or accommodation easier, not too soft-not too hard-just right or just enough to challenge (like porridge).
A commonly known language (story) that was simple was used to convey the learning theory. It took advantage of existing schema and added to it. It also used visuals to make it easier (the three bears, the house, the kitchen, the porridge--similar to the ironing used by Cambourne) This builds on the previous lesson from Cambourne's Teaching-Learning-Language and reinforces the learning theory. Using the existing schema made it easier to understand and learn what was being taught by making connections. Use of known language in teaching is important in Cambourne’s theory. You cannot understand a lesson if you cannot understand the language. Learning has 6 components: Demonstration, Engagement, Transformation, Discussion, Application, and Evaluation.
Growth Mindset involves the belief that one can learn more, that intelligence (or lack thereof) is not fixed. If one believes or is encouraged to believe with praise and positive affirmation along with proof of evaluation of learning they will grow. However, be careful what is praised, show that it is ok to make mistakes (approximate), and encourage putting oneself out there to meet challenges in order to grow.
All three theories for learning involve motivation to learn with having a reason, purpose, motive, desire, intent, and commitment. All three tap existing schema and seek to assimilate or accommodate new information with old information. And all three involve learning as a social interaction from the time they are born; and particularly important to us in teaching when considering classroom teaching and learning strategies.Synthesizing: To me it means assimilation or accommodation to existing schema when reading. In other words, new questions arise while reading that cause you to think more and possibly give rise to even more questions, which in the end affects a deeper learning (if you accept what you are reading to be true). If you accept it to be true, then you can have transformation. Learning involves synthesizing new information with existing schema--it is a building process that increases knowledge on an existing foundation. The foundation is there, but the building process may change or add to each layer (brick or block) as learning (synthesizing) occurs. Basically, it is a process of bringing information together.
How students Learn: History, Math, and Science in the Classroom...
Knowledge is built on an existing foundation that begins by making sense of the world from the time we are born. A simple fish story is used to enhance interpretation and understanding (like The Three Bears). Kids have existing schema when they begin school in which is tapped when they are learning, trying to accommodate or assimilate what they are learning with what they already know. Learning occurs when you begin asking questions about what you are reading or being taught. Factual content and conceptual (big idea) content work together; not separately. Transitioning from novice to expert (master) involves practice and repitition to recognize patterns or ideas in the process of learning in synthesizing new knowledge with previous knowledge. Sometimes it involves getting rid of the old erroneous knowledge to be replaced with the correct new knowledge. Metacognition (thinking about your thinking) is essential in assessing what you are reading, synthesizing and learning--which may involve asking questions and rereading for comprehension. Most of these ideas are similar to the three learning theories mentioned above which include:
Perspectives on learning environments.
The learner-centered lens encourages attention to preconceptions, and begins instruction with
what students think and know.
The knowledge-centered lens focuses on what is to be taught, why it is taught, and what mastery looks
The assessment-centered lens emphasizes the need to provide frequent opportunities to make students’
thinking and learning visible as a guide for both the teacher and the student in learning and instruction.
The community-centered lens encourages a culture of questioning, respect, and risk taking.
Eight-Word Learning Phil.: Respect, engagement, and positive expectations promote intellectual growth
Engagement Level: 5